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農藥簡介內容
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摘要
發佈日期:2007-05-31
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  殺菌劑主要用於防治由真菌或細菌引起的植物病害,殺真菌劑大略可分為保護劑及治療劑。保護劑主要使用於病害發生前或發病初期,其作用範圍較廣,稀釋倍數較低,常用的保護劑有礦物油劑、銅劑、硫磺劑、苯二甲醯亞胺劑、有機氯劑、部分呼吸作用抑制劑、黑色素合成抑制劑及生物製劑等;治療劑具有系統移行性,作用對象較專一,依作用對象的不同可分為卵菌類用藥、子囊菌及不完全菌類用藥、擔子菌類用藥及灰黴菌核菌類用藥等數大類。殺細菌劑種類稀少而且效果有限,必須於病菌侵入組織前施用,才能獲得滿意的效果,主要防治藥劑有抗生素類、銅劑及系統抗病誘導劑。殺菌劑抗藥性為困擾病害防治的主要問題,許多殺真菌劑,例如免賴得系(benzimidazole)、pyrrole系、醯基苯胺系(phenylamides)、史托比系(strobilurins)、dichlorophenyl dicarboximide及環狀炭氫化物(aromatic fungicides)等都很容易誘發抗藥性,殺細菌劑因種類少,使用頻繁,抗銅或抗鏈黴素的植物病原細菌菌株已相當普遍。台灣作物種類複雜,真菌及細菌性病害的種類繁多,大多農藥業者及農民對病原的分類及殺菌劑的特性等觀念模糊,而一般植保研究人員對各種殺菌劑的基本藥理藥效、作用機制、防治適期及抗藥性的動態等亦少有研究,為促進殺菌劑的合理使用與管理,今後有必要加強相關研究與資料彙集研析,建立殺菌劑基礎感受線資料並進行田間抗藥性定期監測,及時提供作物重要病蟲害整合性防治模式供農民參考,並藉示範推廣落實宣導教育的效果。
(關鍵詞:殺菌劑、殺真菌劑、殺細菌劑、抗藥性、農藥合理使用、病蟲害整合性防治)

Fungicides and bactericides are used to control plant fungal and bacterial diseases. Fungicides are categorized into two groups, protectants and cures/eradicants, according to their mode of action. Protectants are used before or in the early stage of infection to prevent the progress of diseases. They are usually used at higher concentration with broader spectrum. Protectant fungicides include mineral oil, copper, sulfur, phthalimide, organochlorines, some respiration inhibitors, melanin synthesis inhibitors, and biological agents. Curative and eradicant fungicides are widely or locally transported within the target plants after application and are usually used at lower concentration resulting in more specific effectiveness.  Based on the classification of target fungi, curative and eradicant fungicides are categorized into groups that are more or less specifically effective on Oomycetes, Ascomyecets and Deuteromycetes, Basidiomycetes, or Botrytis spp and sclerotium-forming fungi. Limited kinds of bactericides have been developed for controlling plant bacterial diseases. The major active ingredients that are recommended for controlling bacterial diseases are antibiotics, copper, and some inducers of systemic acquired resistance of plants.  Unless applied in advance for preventing infection, the effectiveness of chemical control is usually unsatisfactory. Resistance of plant pathogenic fungi to fungicides poses big problems on plant disease control. Some sorts of fungicides such as benzimidazoles, pyrroles, phenylamides, strobilurins, dichlorophenyl dicarboximides, and aromatic fungicides have proved to be prone to induce resistance. Due to the lack of alternative bactericides, strains of plant pathogenic bacteria resistant to copper, streptomycin or both were commonly detected in different areas of Taiwan.  Located in subtropical area, Taiwan has warm and humid climate that is favorable for the growth of versatile crops and the occurrence of plant fungal and bacterial diseases. However, quite a few pesticide retail dealers and growers are not knowledgeable about the classification of the pathogens and the traits of pesticides. On the other side, limited basic and applied researches have been done in Taiwan to explore the spectra, mode of action, and application timing of different fungicides/bactericides and the dynamics of resistance in the population of plant pathogens. To promote rational use and management of fungicide/bactericide in Taiwan, the authors suggest that more effort should be put in relevant research and work including data collection and analysis of baseline sensitivity of wild-type pathogen population to fungicides/bacteicides and extensive monitoring of dynamic resistance in field based on the abovementioned data. Furthermore, updated rational integrated pest management (IPM) model for crop major pests should be proposed accordingly in time and extended to the growers via various ways such as training courses, workshops, and especially field demonstration. 
(Key words: fungicide, bactericide, resistance, rational use, integrated pest management)


 

 

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